Russian cuisine is diverse, as Russia is by area the largest country in the world. Russian cuisine derives its varied character from the vast and multi-cultural expanse of Russia. Moreover, it is necessary to divide Russian traditional cuisine and Soviet cuisine, which has its own peculiarity. Its foundations were laid by the peasant food of the rural population in an often harsh climate, with a combination of plentiful fish, poultry, game,mushrooms, berries, and honey. Crops of rye, wheat, barley and millet provided the ingredients for a plethora of breads, pancakes, cereals, beer and vodka. Soups and stews full of flavor are centered on seasonal or storable produce, fish and meats. This wholly native food remained the staple for the vast majority of Russians well into the 20th century.
Russia’s great expansions of culture, influence, and interest during the 16th–18th centuries brought more refined foods and culinary techniques, as well as one of the most refined food countries in the world. It was during this period that smoked meats and fish, pastry cooking, salads and green vegetables, chocolate, ice cream, wines, and juice were imported from abroad. At least for the urban aristocracy and provincial gentry, this opened the doors for the creative integration of these new foodstuffs with traditional Russian dishes. The result is extremely varied in technique, seasoning, and combination.
In French medieval cuisine, banquets were common among the aristocracy. Multiple courses would be prepared, but served in a style called service en confusion, or all at once. Food was generally eaten by hand, meats being sliced off large pieces held between the thumb and two fingers. The sauces were highly seasoned and thick, and heavily flavored mustards were used. Pies were a common banquet item, with the crust serving primarily as a container, rather than as food itself. Meals often ended with an issue de table, which later changed into the modern dessert, and typically consisted of dragées (in the Middle Ages, meaning spiced lumps of hardened sugar or honey), aged cheese and spiced wine.3page-img1French regional cuisines use locally grown vegetables, such as potato, wheat, carrot, leek,turnip,eggplant and zucchini. French regional cuisines use locally grown fungi, such as truffle, button mushroom,chanterelle,oyster mushrooms, and porcini..
Common fruits includes oranges,tomatoes, tangerines, peaches, apricots, apples, pears, plums, cherries, strawberries, , blackberries, grapes, grapefruit, and blackcurrants.
Varieties of meat consumed include chicken, duck, beef, veal,pork,lamb. Commonly consumed fish and seafood include canned sardines, fresh sardines, tuna, salmon, mussels, shrimp and calamari.
Herbs and seasonings vary by region, and include tarragon, rosemary, marjoram, lavender, thyme, fennel, and sage… Bon Appétit!
Mediterranean cuisine is the food from the cultures adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea. Although this region spans a wide variety of cultures, the historical connections of the region have led to there being many common elements in the foods.
The typical products for Mediterranean cuisine are olives and olive oil, fresh vegetables (tomatoes, eggplant, bell pepper, zucchini), fish and seafood, herbs(thyme, rosemary, oregano and basil), white bread, pasta and rice, wines.